Wilder winds are altering currents. The sea is releasing carbon dioxide. Ice is melting from below.

Important work on the exchange of carbon dioxide between the ocean and the atmosphere in the Southern Ocean by oceanographers Joellen Russell and Lynne Talley highlighted in article in The New York Times.


“From no perspective is there any place more important than the Southern Ocean. There’s nothing like it on Planet Earth.”

—Joellen L. Russell, The University of Arizona. “


Launching a float from the R/V Palmer in the Southern Indian Ocean. Photo by Isa Rosso.




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